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APA 7th Edition Referencing Guide

Conference Proceedings

 

Structure:

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Eds.). (Year). Title of Proceedings. Publisher. URL (if applicable)

 

Example:

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In Text: 

...(Pracana & Wang, 2017)

or

Pracana and Wang (2017)

 

Paper in a conference proceeding:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher.

 

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In Text:

 Babula (2020)..

or

...(Babula, 2020) 

 

 

 

Lectures

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

Structure: 

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL

Example: 

Cairn, A.F. (2020, May 22).  Dog human interpersonal communication [PowerPoint slides]. Solent Online Learning.  https://learn.solent.ac.uk/

In Text: 

...(Cairn, 2020)

or

Cairn (2020)

 

 

Personal Communications

Personal Communication

An email, telephone conversation, social media message are known as personal communications.  As your reader cannot retrieve them you do not include them in reference list only in your text. Regardless of the type of personal communication, you include the phrase "personal communication"

 

Structure: 

 (Initial. Lastname, personal communication,  Month day, year).

 

Example and Intext: 

 ......(E.A. Cairn, personal communication, May 22, 2020)

 

Secondary Reference

Secondary Sources/Indirect Sources 

In your list provide a reference to the source where you found your reference, as this is what you have read (you have not read the original work but someone else's summary/paraphrase of it).  It is of course always better to read the original.

Citing Indirect Sources:

List the secondary (indirect source) in your reference list at the end of your piece of work and include the secondary source in brackets in your text.  If you know the date of original source include it in the citation.  

Citing Indirect Sources

As Domjan believes most researchers agree that conditioning works best with stimuli that are biologically relevant to the organism (as cited in Schacter, 2015, p.241).

or 

...(Domjan, 2005, as cited in Schacter, 2015, p.241).  (If you know the date of Domjan's work).

 

Reference list 

Schacter, D., Gilbert, D., Wegner, D., & Hood, B. (2016). Psychology (2nd European ed.).  Palgrave