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Open access terms

Author accepted manuscript (AAM): the final authored version of the manuscript, which includes any finished changes made as part the peer-review process, that has been accepted for publication by the journal. Documents that have been typeset or copyedited by the publisher (such as proofs or the final published version) are not AAMs, but articles written in a publisher-supplied template are acceptable.

Article processing charge (APC): charge levied by a publisher to publish a research article as gold open access. Charges can range from hundreds to several thousands of pounds per article.

Digital object identifier (DOI): is a persistent identifier assigned to journal articles and research datasets and other objects. DOIs are created by many registered agencies but the DOI system is managed by the DOI Foundation.

Embargo: some publishers allow authors to deposit the accepted manuscript version of an article in an institutional repository, but only after a specified amount time. Some embargo periods can last for several years. Use the database SHERPA/RoMEO to check the duration of embargoes.

Gold open access: likely to require the up-front payment of article processing charges (APCs) to cover the costs of publishing in a fully open access or hybrid journals. Peer-reviewed journal articles and conference contributions published with an ISSN then appear online and can be accessed immediately for free, even without a journal subscription.

Green open access: delivered primarily via self-archiving in an online repository such as the institutional repository, Pure. The output that is deposited is the author accepted manuscript (AAM), although in some cases the publisher allows the final published version to be deposited. The AAMs deposited within Pure are often embargoed for a certain amount of time dictated by the publisher, before being made openly accessible.

Hybrid journal: this is where a publisher allows individual articles to be made open access in a subscription journal for a charge (APC). A hybrid journal will have a mixture of subscription and open access content.

Open access: making research publications freely available so anyone can benefit from reading and re-using research. Most funders only require peer-reviewed journal articles and conference contributions published with an ISSN to be open access, but other types of outputs, such as monographs, can also be published open access.

An ORCID is a unique researcher ID number. It provides a persistent digital identifier that a researcher owns and controls, and that distinguishes researchers from one another.

Transformative agreement: an agreement between a publisher and an institution that allows affiliated, corresponding authors to publish their research open access in selected journals. They are sometimes referred to as read and publish deals or transitional agreements. Essentially, the cost for open access publishing will have been met centrally, and so there is no additional cost to the author.