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Harvard Solent Referencing

Charts, Graphs, Tables

Reference the source where you have taken the chart, table or graph from.  For example, if you found it in a book, reference the book; if found on a website, reference the website etc

Film, DVD, Videos

In-text reference examples 

This can be seen in Welles' version of Macbeth (1948).

 

As seen by displays of public behaviour, power, stereotyping (Cross cultural communication skills 2005)

Note: after the first mention in your writing you can just use the film title.

 

Full Reference Format

Title, Year [material designation]. Subsidiary originator (if applicable e.g. Director). Production details

 

Full Reference Example

Macbeth, 1948 [film]. Directed by Orson WELLES. USA: Republic Pictures

 

Cross cultural communication skills, 2005 [DVD]. Gower

Image and artistic pieces

 

Image from a print source

Printed images are usually found in books or magazines. Follow the examples for how to reference a book, magazine article etc. as appropriate. 

 

Image from electronic source

Electronic images are usually found on websites or in a database. Follow the example for referencing a website. 

 

Artistic pieces (Painting, Sculpture, Photograph, Mannequin, etc)

 

In Text Reference 

As can be seen in the painting Dancing Lesson (Degas 1880)....

 

Reference List Format

ARTIST(S), Year. Title of work [material designation]. At: Location

 

Reference List Example

DEGAS, E., 1880. Dancing lesson [oil on canvas]. At: Williamstown, Massachusetts: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute (no.562)

 

Musical Score

 

In-Text Reference 

..as seen in the influence of folk music (Britten 1980).

 

Reference List Format

ORIGINATOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Subsidiary ORIGINATOR (e.g. editor). Place of publication: Publisher

 

Reference List Example 

BRITTEN, B., 1980. Eight folk song arrangements, for high voice and harp. Osian ELLIS, ed. London: Faber Music

 

Podcast

 

In-Text Reference 

Riddoch (2008) described...

Or 

....( Riddoch 2008) 

 

Reference List Format

BROADCASTER (if available), Year of broadcast. Title of podcast [podcast]. Date of podcast [accessed date]. Available from: URL

 

Reference List Example

RIDDOCH, L., 2008. Harnessing Scotland’s energy [podcast]. 29 December [accessed 9 February 2009]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/audio/2008/dec/29/scotland-energy-lesley-riddoch

 

Radio Programme

 

In-Text Reference 

This issue has been discussed on the radio ... (Woman's hour, 2008)

 

Reference List Format

Programme title, Year of broadcast [radio]. Channel. Date. Time

 

Reference List Example

Woman's hour, 2008 [radio]. BBC Radio 4. 4 June. 19:00

 

If one person is clearly responsible for the content of the reference, they can be named as the creator

In-Text Reference 

This issue is highlighted by Smith (2008) in a radio broadcast...

 

Reference List Format

CREATOR(S), Year of broadcast [radio].  Programme title. Channel. Date. Time 

 

Reference List Example

SMITH, A., 2008 [radio].  Woman's hour. BBC Radio 4. 4 June. 19:00

 

 

Sound Recording, Song, Album, Discography

Sound Recording 

In-Text Reference 

Gordon (1976) is an example of.. 

Reference List Format 

ORIGINATOR(S), Year of publication. Title of piece. In: Title of source. Medium. Production details, numeration. Distributor

Reference List Example

GORDON, D., 1976. Settin' the pace. In: Long tall Dexter, the Savoy sessions. Stereo sound disk. New York: Savoy, SIL 221, side B, track 5. Distributed by Arista Records Inc

 

Songs or Albums

In-Text Reference 

The Levellers (1991) include this in...

Reference List Format

There are some variations on what is included in a reference depending on whether you are referencing a single or a whole album. See above for examples.

ARTIST, Year.  Song title (if needed).  In: Album title (if needed) [format e.g. CD].  Catalogue number (if available).  Record label (if available).

Reference List Example - Single from an Album

LEVELLERS, 1991.  Far from home.  In: Levelling the land [CD].  WOLCDL 1022.  China Records

Reference List Example - Single 

THE BEATLES, 1968.  Hey Jude [vinyl 7” single].  R 5722.  Apple Records

Reference List Example - Album

LEVELLERS, 1991.  Levelling the land [CD].  WOLCDL 1022.  China Records

 

Online of Self-Release Music

If you want to look up catalogue numbers, the Discogs website may be useful.

In-Text Reference 

.. this is shown in the work of the Solent Band (2015)

Reference List Format

ARTIST, Year.  Song title.  In: Album title (if available) [format e.g. online single].  Catalogue number (if available).  Record label (if available) [viewed date].  Available from: URL

Reference List Example - Single from and Album

SOLENT BAND, 2015.  The joy of studying.  In: The Uni days [self-released single].  SSU2015.  Solent Records [viewed 15th December 2015].  Available from: www.solentrecords.ac.uk

Reference List Example Single 

SOLENT BAND, 2015.  The joy of studying [self-released single].  SSU SR 2015.  Solent Records [viewed 15th December 2015].  Available from: www.solentrecords.ac.uk

 

Discography

In Text Reference 

The Who, 1982)...

Reference List Format

Write the same again, followed by the title of the album in italics followed by [CD] place of distribution (i.e. a town or city): Name of distributor.

Reference List Example

THE WHO, 1982. It's Hard [CD]. UK: Polydor

 

 

TV Programme, TV Episode, On-Demand Episode

TV Programme

In-Text Reference 

This event was reported on television the same day (News at Ten, 2008)

Reference List Format

Programme title, Year [TV]. Channel. Date. Time [if necessary]

Reference List Example

News at ten, 2008 [TV]. ITV1. 16th June

 

Episode in a Series

In-Text Reference 

24 hours in A&E, series 4, episode 8, A few good men (2013) includes…

Reference List Format

Series title, series #, episode #, episode title, Year [medium].  Channel. Date.

Reference List Example

24 hours in A&E, series 4, episode 8, A few good men, 2013 [TV].  More4.  5 April

 

Episode from On-Demand Platform

In-Text Reference 

The characters are… (Designated Survivor, series 1, episode 3, The confession 2016)

Or

Britain’s secret charity cheats, series 2, episode 1 (2019) demonstrates this…

Reference List Format

Series title, series #, episode #, episode title, Year [medium].  Channel/platform.  Date [if available]

Reference List Examples 

Designated Survivor, series 1, episode 3, The confession, 2016 [TV].  Netflix

Britain’s secret charity cheats, series 2, episode 1, 2019 [TV].  iPlayer.  27 May

 

TV Interview

TV Interview 

Your own primary research does not need to be referenced - cite your interviewee in the text as a personal communication, with a referral, if appropriate, to the full interview transcript in an appendix.

In-Text Reference

Blair (1997) made the claim that…

Reference List Format 

INTERVIEWEE., Year. Interview. In: Programme title. Channel. Date. Time

Reference List Example 

BLAIR, T., 1997. Interview. In: Six o'clock news. BBC1. 15 August. 18:00

 

Video Games

 

In-Text Reference 

The use of music is a fundamental component in video games, as is evident in Solent Video Creatives (2017).

Reference List Format

Originators, Year of first release. Title of game [video game]. Publisher

Online Reference List Format

Originators, Year of first release. Title of game [video game]. Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: URL/location

Reference List Examples

Solent Video Creatives, 2017.  Match time [video game].  SSU Arts

Solent Video Creatives, 2017.  Match time [video game].  SSU Arts [viewed 10th February 2018].  Available from: www.solentarts.com