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Harvard Solent Referencing

Useful Abbreviations

These are some abbreviations you might find useful when referencing, particularly if some of the details you need for a reference are missing.

Anon.  - Anonymous 

dir. - Director

ed(s).  - editor or edition

et al. - and others (for multiple authors)

wr.  - writer

prod. - producer

p. - page

pp.-  pages

op. cit. -  in the work already quoted 

ibid. - in the same book or article etc as just quoted  

n.d. - date unknown

s,l. -  Place of publication unknown

s.n.  - Publisher unknown