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Harvard Solent Referencing

No Author - Missing Authors

If a work has no author, ideally try and find a corporate author.  If you really can't find one, use Anon. Consider the quality of the source to ensure you feel it is appropriate to include if no author is assigned to it.

Corporate authors

These can be a company, an organisation or an institution. 

In-text reference example

Home Office (2001) has outlined...

Reference list example

HOME OFFICE, 2001.  Policing a new century: a blueprint for reform.  Norwich: The Stationery Office


Missing authors (Anon.)

In-text reference example

As evidenced by Anon. (2004)...

Reference list example

ANON., 2004.  Social services year book 2004.  32nd ed.  Harlow: Pearson Education

No Date - Missing Dates

If your source has no date use n.d  where the date should go.  Dates are most commonly missing from websites, if there is no obvious date, use the copyright date (often found at the foot of the page). 

In-text reference example

... (Barr and Dowding n.d.)

Reference list format

Format your reference according to it's type, just add in n.d. where the date should go.


Reference list example

BARR, J. and L. DOWDING, n.d. Leadership in health care. 3rd ed. London: SAGE


No Guidance for My Source

Ask yourself 4 questions to decide how to reference it. 

1. Is this type of source appropriate for me to be using for my assignment?  Check with your tutor if you are not sure.

2. What is the most similar source? Examine the type of details which are included in a reference.

3. What details can I find for the source? Author and date are essential. There will also be information available about where and how the source was published. For online material note where and when you accessed the source.

4. Which order should I put reference details in? Look again at the most similar source. For Harvard References, the overall order is AUTHOR, DATE, PUBLISHING DETAILS, (ACCESS DETAILS)

Remember that the main aim of a reference is to HELP your reader be able to locate the source, so give as much detail as possible in the appropriate order. 

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