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Harvard Solent Referencing

Two Or Three Authors

Up to three authors - include all authors (with second and third author initials before surname).

In-text reference example

As Smith, Stewart and Cullen (2006) have argued...

Reference list example:

SMITH, F., R. STEWART and D. CULLEN, 2006.  Adoption now: law, regulations guidance and standards.  London: BAAF


More than Three Authors

More Than Three Authors

Give the first author followed by et al.

In-text reference example

Mares et al. (2002, p.105) proposed...

Note et al. is in italics and there is a full-stop after al. (it's an abbreviation of alia)

Reference list example:

MARES, P. et al., 2002. Health care in multiracial Britain. Cambridge: Health Education Council

Multiple Works By The Same Author

If an author has written more than one work in a year, add a,b,c, etc after the date to distinguish between them.


In-text reference examples

Smith (2007a, p.22) suggested… Further, Smith (2007b, p.3) explained…

Reference list examples

SMITH, A., 2007a. How to cite references. Southampton: Solent Publishing

SMITH, A., 2007b. Avoiding plagiarism. Southampton: Solent Publishing

This system applies no matter what format the source material is in; so if an author published a book, a podcast and a journal article all in 2010, they would still be given as 2010a, 2010b and 2010c.

If an author has written more than one solo work in different years, list them in date order (oldest to newest).

Authors With The Same Name Publishing In The Same Year

If there are two or more different authors with the same surname who have published material in the same year, add the initial after the surname to differentiate them.

In-text reference example

As outlined by Martin, J. (2018, p.31) it is clear ….  This is also evidenced … (Martin, L. 2018)

Reference list examples

MARTIN, J., 2018.  Academic writing explained.  Southampton: Solent Publishing

MARTIN, L., 2018.  How to succeed in your studies.  Southampton: Solent Publishing

List the items in your full reference list by alphabetical order of surname within the whole list and then by initial where the surnames and year of publication are the same.  Where the surnames are the same but the year of publication is different, reference each item as you would normally by author surname and year.

More than one source in the same sentence

If you wish to refer to more than one author or source within the same sentence. 

Put the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets, followed by the next author, and so on.


In-text reference examples

If citing directly

Gazzard (2013) and Wade (2016) focus on the historical scope of British games while Mac Sithigh (2014) and Woodcock (2016) explore contemporary policy and industrial contexts for games within the UK.


If citing indirectly

It is also arguable that nurse education, along with much of Higher Education generally, is dominated by an instrumentalist ideology (Collini, 2011; Goodman, 2012; Roggero, 2011). This is the first step, acknowledging our ‘prejudices’.

You would then include a full reference for each source within the reference list, following the format guidance for that particular source.