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OSCOLA (Law) Referencing Guide

OSCOLA Law referencing guidance

European Court of Human Rights - Primary Source

For judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), cite either the official reports, the Reports of Judgments and Decisions (cited as ECHR) or the European Human Rights Reports (EHRR), but be consistent.

Before 1996, the official reports were known as Series A and numbered consecutively. The EHRR series is also numbered consecutively. 

References to unreported judgments should give the application number, and then the court and the date of the judgment in brackets. When pinpointing, use ‘para’ or ‘paras’ after a comma. 

Further information can be obtained from the ECHR website and the HUDOC database at

Footnote Examples:

Johnston v Ireland (1986) Series A no 122.

Osman v UK ECHR 1998–VIII 3124.

Balogh v Hungary App no 47940/99 (ECtHR, 20 July 2004).

Omojudi v UK (2009) 51 EHRR 10, para 3.


The only differences are that case names are not italicised, pinpointing is not used and there is no full stop at the end of the reference.

Bibliography Examples:

Johnson v Ireland (1986) Series A no 122

Omojudi v UK (2009) 51 EHRR 10

Balogh v Hungary App no 47940/99 (ECtHR, 20 July 2004)