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Harvard Solent Referencing


Follow the format below for a book regardless of whether it was accessed as a print or electronic copy.

In-text reference examples 

It has been argued that...(Johns 2014, p.108)

Johns (2014) has argued that... 


Reference list format

AUTHOR(S),  Year of publication. Title. Edition (other than first). Place of  publication: Publisher


Reference list example

JOHNS, R., 2014. Using the law in social work. 6th ed. London: Learning Matters

Chapter/Essay in a Book

Follow the format below for a chapter or essay regardless of whether it was accessed through a print copy or electronic copy of the book.

In-text reference examples 

There are indications that...(Busch 2001, p.23)

As indicated by Busch (2001)...


Reference list format

AUTHOR(S) OF CHAPTER, Year of publication. Title of chapter/essay. In: Editor(s) of books. Title of book. Edition (other than first). Place of publication: Publisher, Page range of chapter

Reference list example

BUSCH, A., 2001. Unpacking the globaliization debate: approaches, evidence and data. In: C. HAY and D. MARSH, eds. Demystifying globalization. New York: Palgrave, pp.21-48

Edited Book

Follow the format below for an edited book regardless of whether it was accessed as a print or electronic copy.

In-text reference example

As suggested by Watkins and Mason (2017, p.45) businesses…

Businesses need to be aware of... (Watkins and Mason 2017, p.45)


Reference list format

EDITOR(S), eds., Year of publication. Title of book. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher


Reference list example

WATKINS, J. and P. MASON, eds., 2017. Business Information Systems: current issues. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press


Journal Article

Follow the format below for a journal article regardless of whether it was accessed as a print or electronic copy.

In-text reference examples 

Wilson and Till (2008, p.63) point out that passengers are "more likely to notice an advertisement if they are alone than if they are with someone else."  

The likelihood of passengers noticing an advertisement is affected by... (Wilson and Till 2008)


Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal, volume number(issue or part number), pages

Reference list example

WILSON, R.T. and B.D. TILL, 2008. Airport advertising effectiveness: an exploratory field study. Journal of advertising, 37(1), 59-72


Journals without volume numbers

If the journal does not have a volume number and part number use the publication date instead.  

MESSMER, M., 2003. Public speaking success strategies. The national public accountant, Nov 2003, 26


Journals without part numbers 

Some journals are published without part numbers , if it is not present, omit it from the reference.

Journal Articles Published Ahead On-Line

Some articles are published online in advance of being formally published in the journal.  These can be called ‘advance online publication’, ‘published ahead of print’ or ‘epub ahead of print’ or a similar variation. 

These will often miss some of the standard details given in a journal article reference such as volume number, issue number and page numbers.  Give as many details as you have available for a standard journal article reference. 

If you don’t have volume, issue and page numbers, you could use the date of publication online instead. 

You will need to include a statement to indicate your article is published online ahead of formal publication.

In-text reference example

Bishop et al. 2017 have identified that...

It is clear that... (Bishop et al. 2017)


Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal, publication day and month if no volume and issue number [epub ahead of print]


Reference list example

BISHOP, C., et al., 2017.   Heavy barbell hip thrusts do not effect sprint performance: an 8-week randomized–controlled study.  Journal of strength and conditioning research, 24 July [epub ahead of print]

Articles that use article numbers

Sometimes online journals use article numbers instead of official page numbers.  If you are referencing an online article which has an article number instead of a page range, include the word 'article' and use the article number instead of the page range followed by [no pagination]


In-text reference example

As has been indicated... (Cavalcanti 2021) 

Cavalcanti (2021) has indicated that...

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal, volume number, article number: ### [no pagination]


Reference list example
CAVALCANTI, E.J.C., 2021. Energy, exergy and exergoenvironmental analyses on gas-diesel fuel marine engine used for trigeneration system. Applied thermal engineering, 184, article no: 116211 [no pagination]



If you refer to information displayed in the PDF version of the article, you can use the article number and the page number you have referred to.

Example: if referring to content from page 6 use (Cavalcanti 2021, 116211-6) 

Magazine Or Newspaper Articles

In-text reference example

Whitfield (2008) stated...

There is evidently a... (Whitfield 2008, p.35)


Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of magazine/newspaper, date of publication, pages


Reference list examples

FOREMAN, J., 2005. Olympic cities brought to their knees by the games. Daily mail, 7 July, 1-2

WHITFIELD, N., 2008. The evolution of broadband. Personal computer world, June 2008, 30-7


Newspaper OR Magazine article only available via the publication's website

If you are accessing content through a newspaper or magazine’s website, reference it following the format for a website:


Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of page [viewed date]. Available from: URL


Reference list example

PARTINGTON, R., 2021.  UK Christmas retail sales worse than expected [viewed 21st January 2021].  Available from:

Conference Paper

In-text reference example

Hummel and Atkinson (2007, p.31) gave the proposal...

It has been proposed that ... (Hummel and Atkinson 2007)


Reference list format

AUTHOR(S) OF PAPER, Year of publication. Title of paper. In: EDITOR(S). Title of conference including the date and location. Place of publication: Publisher, page range of paper


Reference list example

HUMMEL, O. and C. ATKINSON, 2007. Supporting agile reuse through extreme harvesting. In: G. CONCAS et al., eds. Agile processes in software engineering and extreme programming: 8th international conference, XP 2007, Como, Italy, June 18-22, 2007, Proceedings. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp.28-37

Dissertation And Thesis

In-text reference example

Davis (2006, p.24) explained that...

This has been explained as...(Davis 2006, p.24)


Reference list format 

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Type of qualification, Academic institution


Reference list example

DAVIS, L., 2006. British travellers and the rediscovery of Sicily: 16th-19th century. PhD Thesis, Southampton Solent University

Play Text

In-text reference example

Include the act, scene and line number in the in-text reference along with the playwright and year of publication:

“Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more” (Shakespeare 1968, 3.1:1)

The famous quotation from Shakespeare (1968, 3.1:1) stating “Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more” conveys...


Reference list format

PLAYWRIGHT SURNAME, Initial., Year of publication.  Title of play.  Editor details (if given).  Place of publication: Publisher


Reference list example

SHAKESPEARE, W., 1968.  Henry V. Edited by A.R. HUMPHREYS.  London: Penguin

Items in a Repository

In-text reference example

Yamada, Prugel-Bennett and Thornton (2020) explain...

This can be explained as...(Yamada, Prugel-Bennett and Thornton 2020)


Reference list format

AUTHOR/S, Year.  Title of preprint.  Repository name [preprint/postprint/dataset as appropriate] [viewed date].  Available from: URL for repository entry

Reference list example

YAMADA, T., A. PRUGEL-BENNETT and B. THORNTON, 2020.  Learning Features from georeferenced seafloor imagery with location guided autoencoders.  University of Southampton Institutional Repository [preprint] [viewed 11th June 2020].  Available from:



If you can find a final published version of the item you should use and reference that instead.

Some articles may also be published online in a journal ahead of full publication - see the example 
'Journal Articles Published Ahead On-Line'.


See 'Reviews' section for guidance on referencing a 'review' which can be a review of a book, an article, drama/musical performance and film review.