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Harvard Solent Referencing

Generative AI content / ChatGPT

AI (Artificial Intelligence) generated content such as ChatGPT is difficult to reliably reproduce; a number of tools produce outputs that cannot be linked to or retrieved and there is no published source that you can reference directly.  You may not always be able to rely on the quality of information given via AI generated tools.  It can make mistakes, such as making up information and academic sources. It can respond to the same question asked multiple times with different answers and these answers are not always correct.  Therefore, it is worth considering finding a more authoritative source to reference instead.

If your assessment instructions permit the use of AI tools (e.g. using an AI tool to generate content or ideas, or to assist in developing your work) you must acknowledge it as a source in your in text citation and reference list.  It would be worth consulting the Academic Misconduct Procedure for clarity.

Though specific referencing guidance for AI tools is still developing, the Library currently recommends that you base the reference for generative AI content on the reference style for personal communication.  The examples given below could be followed in the absence of any other form of guidance you may have been provided with.  


In text format:

To acknowledge content or ideas retrieved from an AI tool, include in brackets, the AI author details followed by the year of the communication.

In text example:

(OpenAI ChatGPT 2023) which would appear within your sentence/paragraph/caption where you address the source directly.
 

Reference list format - no shareable link to the output is available:

NAME OF AI TOOL, year.  [AI Tool name] response to [Your name], (personal communication, date) 

Reference list example:

OPENAI CHATGPT, 2023.  ChatGPT response to Lesley Smith, (personal communication, 5th May)


Reference list format - shareable link to the output is available:

NAME OF AI TOOL, year. [AI Tool name] response to [Your name]. Available from: URL [accessed date]

Reference list example:

OPENAI CHATGPT, 2023. ChatGPT response to Lesley Smith. Available from: https://chat.openai.com/share/c48aeafb-6040-476e-bc25-18121e4f74ca [accessed 2nd October]

 

AI digital art generation image e.g. OPENAI DALL-E

Reference list format:

NAME OF AI TOOL, year.  [AI Tool name] response to [Your name], (personal communication, date) 

Reference List example no shareable link:

OPENAI DALL-E, 2023.  DALL-E digital art generated image showing a pile of books created for Lesley Smith, (personal communication, 14th November)

Reference List example shareable link to the output is available:

OPENAI DALL-E, 2023. DALL-E digital art generated image showing a pile of books created for Lesley Smith. Available from: https://......... [accessed 10th December]