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Harvard Solent Referencing

Social Media, Blogs, Discussion Lists

Social Media Post (Twitter, TikTok, Instagram, etc)

In-text reference example 

Solent University (2023) used images to...

Reference list format 

AUTHOR, year. Title of page. [Name of site]. Day/month of posted message [viewed day month year]. Available from: URL

If the content is behind a password give the main web address for the site as the URL.

Reference l
ist examples

AIRLINES LIVE, 2023. Boeing 737 STUNNING Departure. [TikTok]. 8th February [viewed 11 May 2023]. Available from:

LEARNING SKILLS AT SOLENT, 2015. Intended for secondary school teachers but some apps here which are still useful in further education. [Facebook status update]. 12th October [viewed 29/11/2016]  Available from:

SMITH-MAY, N, 2016. British woman can adopt girl found in box in Egypt, judge rules. [Twitter]. 29 November [viewed 14/11/2022].  Available from: 

SOLENT UNIVERSITY, 2023. Solent University  [Instagram]. 8th April. [viewed 15 May 2023]. Available from:

Blog or Discussion List

In-text reference example 

Bradley (2008) explained...

Reference list format - blog

AUTHOR(S), Year. Title of blog entry. In: Blog title. Full date of blog entry [viewed date]. Available from: URL

As web pages, blogs do not have page numbers.

Reference list example - blog

BRADLEY, P., 2008. Word of the day is 'exaflood'. In: Phil Bradley's weblog. 29 April 2008 [viewed 9 May 2008]. Available from:

Reference list format - discussion list

AUTHOR(S), Year. Subject of message. In: Discussion list. Full date of message [viewed date]. Available from: URL of archive or individual message or email address of list

Reference list example - discussion list 

JONES, A., 2008. Citing standards. In: Lis-link. 16 June 2008 [viewed 20 June 2008]. Available from:

Websites, YouTube, Wikis, LinkedIn Learning

Website, YouTube OR LinkedIn Learning

If you can find the date the resource was created, include that in your reference.  However, many web resources will have a date the site or resource was last updated instead - if that is the only date information available, include that in your reference.  If you cannot find any form of date, include the accepted abbreviation of [n.d.] to indicate the date is not known.

In-text reference example

In the video from Southampton Solent (2014), it is evident that...

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication or last update. Title of page [viewed date]. Available from: URL

If no author is given, use the provider of the website as the author. This may be the name of a University, a company, a newspaper, or just the website name.  If you really cannot identify an author, use 'Anon.' as the author information section.

Reference list examples

DEAKIN UNIVERSITY, 2010. The literature review [viewed 6 May 2008]. Available from:

MADECRAFT and A. AUDENAERT, 2020. Introduction to Social Media Strategy Online Class [viewed 7 December 2023]. Available from:

SOLENT UNIVERSITY, 2014.  Solent University new build animation [viewed 28 July 2015].  Available from:


Wikis are collaborative creations that can be edited and added to by anyone - so you may not always be able to rely on the quality of the information given. Therefore, consider finding a more authoritative source to reference instead. If you do decide to reference a wiki, you will need to reference it as an anonymous entry (unless you can find an author specifically identified as responsible for the content) and date of update.

In-text reference example

Anon. (2018) suggests that…

Reference list format

ANON., Year of last update. Title of entry. In: Wiki name [viewed date]. Available from: URL

Reference list example

ANON., 2018. How to improve your study skills. In: Wikihow [viewed 13 July 2018]. Available from:

Mobile or Web App

In-text reference example

As seen in this app, you can … (WhatsApps Inc., 2009)


Reference list format

DEVELOPER, Year. Title of app (version number). [Mobile app].  Available from: store name [download date]

Reference list example

WHATSAPP INC., 2009. WhatsApp Messenger (Version 2.19.100). [Mobile app]. Available from: App Store [downloaded 23 October 2020]

Online Report

In-text reference example

...(Lawton 2007)


As discussed by Lawton (2007)....


Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of Publication. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: URL


Referencelist example

LAWTON, A., 2007. Supporting self-advocacy.  London: Social Care Institute For Excellence [viewed 11 July 2022]. Available from: